Saturday, February 15, 2020
Industrial Relations in UK and Japan - Essay Example The term 'industrial relations' came into common use in Britain and North America during the 1920s. It has been joined by personnel management and, since the 1980s, human resource management (HRM). All there denote a particular activity (the management of people) and the area of academic enquiry. It covers relationship between manger and worker in all spheres of economic activity. The focus is employment: all forms of economic activity in which an employee works under the authority of an employer and receives a wage in return for his or her labour. Industrial relations thus excludes domestic labour and also self-employed and professionals who work under own account. Most studies of industrial relations have focused on the intuitions involved with the collective bargaining, arbitration and other forms of job regulation. However, we see industrial relations as dealing with all aspects of employee relationship including human resource management. Although the study of employment relations focuses on the regulation of work, it must take into account of the wider economic and social influences on the relative power of capital and labour and the interaction of the employers, workers, their collective organizations and the state. Adam (1988) sees industrial relations as having a dual character: it is both an interdisciplinary and a separate discipline in its own right'. Adopting an internationally comparative approach to employment relations not only insight from several disciplines but also knowledge of different national context. In this paper I will try to examine the ways in which comparative analysis can contribute to an understanding of the factors that shape national patterns of employment relations and identify the main features of two different countries. Industrial relations system Perhaps the most famous conceptual framework is Dunlop's (1958) notion of an 'industrial relations system'. Dunlop argues that the industrial relations system includes three sets of 'actors' and their representative organizations (the three parties): employers, workers and the state. These parties' relations are determined by three environmental context: the technology; market forces; and the relative power and status of the parties. Employment relations UK The United Kingdom has a total population of 60 million people and a labour force participation rate of 75 percent. The UK has fewer people employed in agriculture than any other Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) country. About 27 percent of its other civilian population employees work in the industry. The remaining 70 percent work in service. There has been a greater decline in its 'industry' category since 1970 than any other OECD country. In spite the relative growth of services, there was steep rise in unemployment. 12 percent in the year 1986 before subsequently falling to 7 percent in the late 1990s. British politics has been dominated by two parties since 1945. The Conservative Party's support is strongest among the business and rural communities. By contrast, the Labour Party's support is traditionally strongest in the urban working class communities, through this has broadened. A significant but reducing proportion of its fund still comes from affiliated trade unions. There are several other political parties, including Liberal Democrats and nationalist parties
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Managing Strategy NETFLIX - Case Study Example As a result of this rapid success, Netflix began to create alliances with movie studies, such as Warner Home Video, that provided both partners opportunities for sharing revenues. As a result of these agreements, the company released its IPO for shareholders in 2002, as a company that could sustain growth and remain profitable long-term. With new capital availability as a result of having publicly traded stock, Netflix was now in a substantially sound financial business that provided opportunities to expand the business model. Today, Netflix provides customers with a flat rate membership of $7.99 USD per month, with the ability to rent DVDs and view streaming video content. Ease and convenience of using credit cards via Internet sales channels now gives Netflix immediate revenues that improves services and expand the vastness of its online movie libraries. This report explores the strategic position of Netflix, offering a full strategic appraisal of the company between the years 2010 and 2014. The investigation consists of analyses of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive strategy, performs an internal and external market analysis, determines the key strategic issues that have faced the company, strategic growth options for the company, and a description of the most relevant and viable strategies for improving the market performance of the firm long-term. Netflix operates in four key markets: DVD by mail, streaming video content subscriptions, original television programming, and video game rentals. The firmÃ¢â¬â¢s original market entry strategy for DVDs-through-mail was as a pioneer in this service concept in the United States, as a differentiator, giving the company a consumer-perceived uniqueness for providing convenience without having to visit a bricks-and-mortar rental company. Kalyanaram and Gurumurthy (2008) iterate the pioneers have tremendous
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Building A World Class Hr Organization Management Essay The situation facing Sonoco is that the company has grown rapidly over a period of several years, largely through acquisitions in a growing packaging industry. This has led to the development of a large number of silo based HR systems for each of the companys divisions, which are largely influenced by the specific demands of the divisions and by the acquired businesses, and hence are divergent in nature without a strong level of strategic direction. This is causing issues for the company, as HR is now an expensive function that is not providing significant strategic value. As a result of this, the company has appointed a new senior vice president of Human Resources, Cindy Hartley, with a mandate to develop new organisational structures for HR in order to save costs; improve talent management; develop more effective performance management systems; and provide customised strategic support to the overall business. Hartley has already implemented a number of new systems and process chang es, and has seen some benefits, but still needs to overcome issues related to ineffective talent management and a lack of alignment between performance management and company strategies (Sonoco Products Company, 2012, p. 5). This essay will critically reflect on your own personal learning by drawing upon various academic themes and concepts around managing human resources in order to offer and propose interventions on the case study, as well as to assess the actions already taken and their effectiveness. Diagnosis As noted above, the core issue in the case study appears to be the fact that the company has grown by acquisition with a relatively rapid pace of growth, including making over 60 acquisitions in just a single decade (Sonoco Products Company, 2012, p. 1). When a company grows through such an acquisition focused approach, it is almost inevitable that the HR resourcing and development functions will not be perfectly aligned, and this will hence create silos of HR functionality, with each individual silo only considering their own specific role and function rather than the strategic goals of the organisation (Alberg, 2007, p. 9). This form of silo based approach to HR can be very damaging for a company, as it will create an HR function which is aligned to the requirements of each individual division or department, rather than to the requirements of the business as a whole. The negative impacts of this can be seen in the case of Sonoco, where HR is focused primarily on day to day employee relations issues rather than strategic concerns, and where there are high levels of non cooperative competition between the individual divisions (Sonoco Products Company, 2012, p. 3). The other major crucial HR problem that exists in the company is that there has been a lack of effort to develop a strategic and proactive HR culture in Sonoco. This has resulted in the emergence of an HR culture which is highly reactionary, with the HR function viewed primarily as a watchdog to head off legal and employee relations problem, as well as to assist managers with specific employee issues such as helping managers tell employees they are being terminated even when they have excellent performance evaluations (Sonoco Products Company, 2012, p. 3). The reactionary nature of the HR culture also sees the company being broadly unable to hold underperformers accountable. This has resulted partly in poorly performing employees being able to free ride through the company, and partly in compensation being viewed as an entitlement rather than a reward, and hence failing to improve performance levels. This has led to employees generally being paid at or near the midpoint for all indiv iduals and jobs, which has prevented the creation of any form of meritocracy on the company. According to Weinberger (2003, p. 29), this creates the peanut butter issue where wages are simply spread evenly to avoid any discontent that can come from rewarded highly performing employees and penalising others. This is again evidence of the reactionary culture that avoids conflict and thus fails to boost performance. These two main issues can be seen to be responsible for the majority of HR problems encountered by Sonoco. Specifically, the company is failing to achieve good talent management due to a lack of a coherent HR approach across the company and a lack of desire to identify the best individuals out of all employees. The silo based approach to HR also prevents effective performance management leading to the peanut butter issue identified above. These silos and the reactionary culture also mean that HR is not able to provide strategic support to the business as a whole. Finally, the lack of a mechanism for identifying and disciplining or terminating poorly performing employees has prevented the company from eliminating poor performance, thus hindering cost control as the company cannot effectively save costs by removing the poorest employees. Analysis This section of the work will focus on appraising the environmental and organisational context of the case to identify the main issues these contexts create for the company and the strengths and weaknesses of the HR policies, practices, and systems in light of these issues. The analysis will also consider Cindy Hartleys objectives for changes at Sonoco and the drivers of these objectives. The primary environmental issues at the time of the case came from the changes in the packaging industry. In particular, the industry was going through a period of stagnation and change, with volume now less likely to increase and revenues under threat from low cost foreign competition whilst the industry as a whole began to consolidate (Sonoco Products Company, 2012, p. 2). These trends highlighted the major weakness in Sonocos silo based approach to HR and the resulting disparate systems they created. Specifically, Sonocos HR practices tended to make it difficult for the company to control costs, and hence made it difficult for the company to respond to market changes in a manner as aggressively as its rivals. This can be seen in the fact that the companys stock price significantly trailed the SP 50 between 1995 and 2000, despite the company increasing net income at this time (Sonoco Products Company, 2012, p. 1). This indicates that investors felt the company was underperforming r elative to the market, implying that costs could be cut in a more effective manner. The other main change in the packaging industry was that customers were becoming more demanding, with more variations in packaging and higher levels of segmentation of many markets. As a result of this, clients expected the packaging companies they purchased from to be able to supply them with competitively priced packaging that was highly responsive to industry trends, and to be able to apply new technologies and innovative tools to provide higher levels of customised service (Sonoco Products Company, 2012, p. 2). This is another area in which Sonocos reactionary policies and practices made it difficult for the company to compete, and hence acted as a strong weakness. Specifically, the company lacked a strategic and proactive approach to HR, which reduced its overall ability to respond to trends in the marketplace. This meant Sonoco was restricted to developing new approaches as they were required, thus slowing the packaging concept to market delivery cycle. The company hence had fa iled to align its HR function with the demands of the market, which is a key weakness in any HR system (Aswathappa, 2005). In light of these two issues, it can be seen that Cindy Hartleys objectives for changes at Sonoco are not simply those addressed in the case. The case states that the objectives were to increase accountability for talent management; to distribute HR talent and make systems and processes more consistent; and to provide strategic support to the individual business units. However, in light of the environmental issues identified, her objectives can also be seen as being to improve talent management and performance management in order to increase overall performance; to improve performance management in order to facilitate cost control by allowing the company to terminate underperforming employees; and to provide strategic support to enable the company to be more proactive when responding to the demands of the market. Evaluation This section will consider the success of the HR changes at Sonoco, as well as the extent to which they are in line with state of the art HR policies, practices, and systems, and how they could be improved through the implementation of best HR practices relevant to the case. The fundamental change at Sonoco has been the introduction of a top down approach to performance management, with goal setting and targets being implemented at corporate level and trickled down to individual performance goals through negotiation. This practice has the benefit of attending to employee development needs and career development, as well as linking to the financial rewards system. The system as it stands appears to delegate significant authority to the divisions to set their own goals, and lacks the crucial control and assessment techniques such as business intelligent and analytics to ensure that the performance management system provides strong support to the goals of the business (Elbashir et al, 2011, p. 155). On the other hand, the system has the benefit of being relatively simple and easy to implement, which Muras et al (2008, p. 65) argue is more important that using complex processes which often confuse employees and managers. The system also implements 360 degree feedback for managers, which is vital in ensuring strong managerial development (Carson, 2006). One of the main issues that can be identified with the new performance management system is that it is focused on the value added by the individual. Whilst individual performance important, and will help overcome the problem of employees free riding, it is not in line with best practice performance measurement techniques. These techniques generally focus on the combination of individual and team performance, in order to ensure a balance between the individual and team levels of performance (Addison and Haig, 2012, p. 37). In particular, a failure to incorporate team performance into the performance measurement approach risks harming team identification levels as employees see themselves as individuals rather than members of a team. As Solansky (2011, p. 247) notes, team identification is a vital driver of performance, and hence by failing to attend to this there is the risk the new performance measurement system will hamper levels of team work. This is thus something that needs to be addressed through the implementation of best practice in the future. Design This section will focus on identifying ways of improving the existing HR policies, practices, and systems and how they can become state of the art or best practices. It will hence focus on making recommendations for improving the HR practices and addressing the problems identified in the case, as well as determining the right HR structure for Sonoco: either centralisation or hybrid. As noted above, one of the key methods that can be used to improve existing HR practices is to improve the performance management system to measure team work and individual contributions to team performance. According to Levasseur (2011, p. 204), contemporary organisation development theories hold that this needs to be achieved through consideration of various issues such as team development, conflict management and change management in the team context in order to create high performing teams. Hartley should thus look to include these factors in the new performance measurement framework to ensure high quality outcomes. The other primary issues to be resolved are how to ensure effective talent management, how to be responsive to industry and market requirements, and how to save costs. All of these issues are linked to the fundamental question of which HR model to implement: the centralised model or the hybrid structure. Of these, each option has its own specific focus on different aspects of the organisation. The centralised model will offer greater cost savings as well as improved talent management across the entire organisation, as HR will be able to identify talented employees on an organisation wide basis and move or promote them as necessary. In contrast, the hybrid model will allow for greater responsiveness to industry and market requirements due to the support provided to the general managers. The hybrid model also offers improved talent management at the divisional level as managers are encouraged to invest in their own people and staff them accordingly, although there are concerns over the level of companywide coordination and change management under a hybrid model (Sonoco Products Company, 2012, p. 6). In general, the hybrid model appears to be more desirable as it improves market responsiveness and proactive behaviour due to the support offers to the general managers. Whilst it saves $400,000 less in costs, it still comes close to meeting the $2,800,000 cost saving target, and the improved revenue is likely to be much more important for a business with revenues of around $2.5 billion (Sonoco Products Company, 2012, p. 1). In general, current HR best practice is that the HR function and HR metrics should be focused on strategic alignment ahead off cost saving, as this will allow for higher levels of performance and a more positive HR strategy (Gates and Langevin, 2010, p. 111). The main question is hence which approach to talent management and change management is more appropriate. In this regard, it is important to note that, according to MartÃ n-AlcÃ ¡zar et al (2008, p. 103), best practice HR is moving away from universalistic and centralised approaches, and towards the acceptance of more contingent approaches. This provides further support to the hybrid model, as a model which is more contingent on divisional requirements and hence better able to adapt to specific organisational requirements, including providing the general managers with the specific intelligence, support and responsiveness they need in order to deal with the more competitive industry environment. At the same time, it is important to note that organisational strategy itself has an impact on the most effective HR practices, and hence the company should consider a more universal and centralised approach if its strategy will better lend itself to such an approach. Determining the most e ffective approach to support the organisational strategy should thus be what Cindy Hartley should attend to next. 5. Implementation This aspect of the essay will consider how the changes should be sustained and the schedule and resources required in order to effectively bring about the suggested changes, as well as how the company will you know that the changes are effective. The first aspect of the implementation should be to implement the hybrid model, once this has been formally selected and adapted as necessary to fit the organisational strategy. This will require the concerted effort of all the HR resources, with the specific implementation strategy depending on the availability of these resources and the ability of the company to organise them to obtain the necessary capabilities (Wright et al, 2001, p. 701). The relative success of these implementation efforts should be measured by considering the levels of support provided to the managers, as reported by the managers, as well as the achievement of the cost savings projected from the implementation of the new model (Becker and Gerhart, 1996) A similar appr oach can then be used to adapt the performance management approach in the company to the new organisational realities in order to improve team work, with levels of team performance used as a way to know these changes are effective (Armstrong and Baron, 2011). Reflection The learning activities undertaken in this module and during the analysis and completion of this case study have provided significant abilities with regards to my ability to provide solutions to the case. In particular, whilst studying this module I have learnt how to apply theoretical techniques and models from organisation development and human resources to specific cases and examples. This can be seen in my ability to apply theoretical concepts such as universalistic and contingent HR practices, as well as team work and performance management to the case of Sonoco. This will also assist me in my future managerial career, as I will be able to apply these concepts to the companies I work for. The other primary way in which the learning activities on this module have contributed to my ability to provide solutions to the case is that they have helped me to analyse a practical situation and determine the root causes of the situation from the symptoms. For example, in this case I was able to use the literature to link the acquisition based nature of the companys growth to the development of its HR silos, and use this to make recommendations to address this issue. I was also able to identify and analyse the implications of the hybrid and centralised models using theory, and hence make appropriate recommendations in this area, something which will be useful if I face a similar situation later in my career.
Friday, January 17, 2020
What does it mean to be customer driven? One Fortune 500 Company that lives to please and satisfy their customers is, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s. According to the article The Ray Kroc Story (2012), McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s passion for quality and customer service all began with a man named Ray Kroc (p.1). In 1954, Ray came across a restaurant in San Bernardino, California run by brothers Dick and Mac McDonald. He was immediately captivated by how effective their small operation was. Ray found that the restaurant only offered a limited menu, which consisted of burgers, fries, and beverages. Due to the limited variety, the brothers were able to focus on what was really important, which was quality customer service. Ray Kroc had formed a vision. The article The Ray Kroc Story (2012), he pitched his vision of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s restaurants all over the United States to the brothers (p. 2). In 1955, one year after discovering the small restaurant in California, Ray Kroc founded the McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s Corporation. Five years later, Ray bought the exclusive rights to the McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s name, and by 1958 McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has sold its 100 millionth burger. According to the article The Ray Kroc Story (2012), KrocÃ¢â¬â¢s unique philosophy was that he wanted to build a restaurant system that would be famous for its food consistency, its uniform methods of preparation, and that was customer driven (p. 3). He wanted to be able to serve burgers in Alaska that would taste the same in Alabama. To make this a reality he persuaded franchisees and suppliers to buy into his vision. This was that they were not working for McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s, but rather for themselves, for McDonalds. Ray Kroc never stopped working for McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s. He worked there right up untilÃ he passed away on January 24, 1984 (p. 4). He worked out of his wheelchair in his office, nearly every day, in San Diego, California. Ray KrocÃ¢â¬â¢s legacy and passion for quality, service, and efficiency continues to still be an integral part of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s today. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has more than 33,500 restaurants worldwide. It also has 1.7 million employees, throughout 119 countries. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s mission statement and list of values truly shows how they are customer driven and what they focus on, to continue being successful. The article McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s Mission and Vision (2010-2012), their brand mission is to be their customers favorite place and way to eat (p. 1). They operate around seven core values every day. The first value is that they place the customer experience at the core of what they do. They say that their customers are the reason for their existence. They show their appreciation by providing every person that walks through their door, and drives through their drive thru with high quality food. Their goal is quality, service, cleanliness, and value for each and every customer. Second, they are committed to their customers. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s provides ample opportunity, they nurture talent, and they develop leaders. This company believes that a team of well-trained individuals, coming from diverse backgrounds, working together fosters respect, and is key in their continued success. The third value according to the article McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s Mission and Vision (2010-2012) is that they believe in their system (p. 1). McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has a business model that Ray Kroc compared to a three legged stool. His philosophy was based on the simple principle of the three legged stool: one leg was McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s, the second leg was the franchisees, and the third leg was McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s suppliers. Fourth, they operate their business ethically. This company believes that sound ethics is good business. They strive to hold themselves and to conduct their business to a high standard of fairness, honesty, and also integrity. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s believes that they are individually accountable and collectivelyÃ responsible. Fifth, they give back to their communities. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is serious about the responsibilities that come along with being a leader. They try to make the world a better place by helping their customers build better communities, supporting the Ronald McDonald House Charities, and by leveraging their size, scope, and resources. Sixth, they grow their business profitably. This company is a publicly traded company. Being that they are publicly traded, they work to provides sustained profitable growth for their shareholders. In order to do this they have to focus continually on their customers and the health of their system. The last and final value that McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s lives by is that want to continuously improve. They consider themselves a learning organization. One of the goals under this value is to anticipate and respond to changing customers, employees, and system needs through constant innovation and evolution. Ray Kroc (2010-2012) once said, Ã¢â¬Å"McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is a peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s businessÃ¢â¬ (p. 1). One major way this company shows that it cares about its customers, can be seen through the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in their customers communities. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is a part of a global network of local family restaurants, and they are proud to give back to the communities they serve. They demonstrate this by supporting local sports teams, helping talented young athletes, and taking steps to improve neighborhoods. Two example of this can be seen through McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in the McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s All American High School Basketball Games, and Camp Mickey DÃ¢â¬â¢s. Every year the company brings the top high school basketball talent in the nation together to raise money for the Ronald McDonald House Charities. Camp Mickey DÃ¢â¬â¢s was created by Sybel Pici, owner of three McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s franchise in Texas. This program helps students come to terms and grips with the challenges of the workplace, while making a connection between school and work. One of the most widely recognized ways that McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s shows it is customerÃ driven is through its support of the Ronald McDonald House Charities. According to the article The Ronald McDonald House Charities (2010-2012), the Ronald McDonald House Charities was founded on the idea of strength through numbers (p. 1). Through this customers and families find strength from staff, donors, and each other. The Ronald McDonald House provides a home away from home for families whose children are in hospitals or need medical treatment. Since 2002, McDonalds has brought together its franchisees, suppliers, employees, and customers to take part in a worldwide annual fundraiser. This fundraiser has brought in nearly $170 million for the Ronald McDonald House Charities and other various charities. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has many strong suits. First, they rank high on the Fortune MagazineÃ¢â¬â¢s food service companies that are most admired. They have global operations all over the world. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has cultural diversity in the foods that are provided based on the location. This company has great locations in theme parks, airports, Walmart stores, and along well traveled roads. They have efficient operating guidelines in the assembly line fashion. One weakness is that they are failing the pizza test market therefore limiting the ability to compete with fast food pizza providers. Their training costs are high due to high turnover. They have minimal concentration on providing organic foods. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has large fluctuations in the net and operating profits making impacts on investors. There are quality concerns due to franchised operations. Last, they focus on burgers and grease fried foods and not on healthier options for their customers. One opportunity that McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has is they are opening more joint ventures with several different retailers. They have become more responsive to the social changes and healthier options. They are advertising the capabilities of WIFI. The company has been expanding on the advertising in regards to being more socially responsible in the environment. They have expanded in to newly developed parts of the world. They have opened products up to allergen free options such as peanut free and gluten free foods. Last they have ventured into more enticing beverage choices. One threat is that their marketing strategies are enticing people all the way from small children to adults and they take criticism because of it. McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s has lawsuits for offering unhealthy foods with addictive additives. They have contamination risks. One threat is that there are a large amount of other fast food places that are open and serve as competition. The competition is focusing on healthier dieting by consumers. Last there is a downturn in economy which limits people to going out to eat. Through the vision of Ray Kroc, a Fortune 500 company was formed. Through McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s mission statement and seven core values, this company has had continued success over the years. The success of this company is a direct result of being a truly customer driven company. References McDonald Mission and Corporate Values :: AboutMcDonalds.com. (n.d.)._Ã¢â¬ Official Global Corporate Website :: AboutMcDonalds.com_. Retrieved March 24, 2012, from http://www.aboutmcdonalds.com/mcd/our_company/mission_and_values.html Ronald McDonald House Charities :: McDonalds.com. (n.d.). _Home :: McDonalds.com_. Retrieved March 23, 2012, from http://www.mcdonalds.com/us/en/our_story/our_communities/rmhc.html The Ray Kroc Story :: McDonalds.com. (n.d.). _Home :: McDonalds.com_. Retrieved March 22, 2012, from http://www.mcdonalds.com/us/en/our_story/our_history/the_ray_kroc_story.html
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Impact of Early Childhood Education on Child Development Over the past century, the role of education has greatly increased in areas all over Canada. It has grown in not just in the number of students attending, but also in the ways it has been offered. Before the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s, the education of children consisted solely of parenting done at home (Molnar, 2002, p. 2). Over time, due to the growing importance of education, schools have slowly begun to target younger and younger generations. As a result, non-parental education has become the norm of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society starting for children as early as ages three to four (Molnar, 2002, p. 2). Over the last century, a larger percentage of mothers are choosing to remain in the work force (Khanna Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Like functionalism, the purpose of this research is to address the growing education sector. As the need for credentials is rising, the extended years of school after undergraduate are becoming essential for succ ess. However, parents are also increasingly willing to spend more money and time on the earlier years of school. From these trends, it is evident that the education institution is becoming more relevant in socializing the youth of today. More years of schooling leads to better success financially and cognitively in the future. According to research conducted in 2006, both males and females who had attended preschool made up to 36% more lifetime earnings than those that had not (Belfield, Nores, Barnett Schweinhart, 2006, p. 168). Although there were other external variables involved, the overall trend determined a higher success rate for those who had been enrolled earlier schooling. From the statistics shown above, early child care closes the gap between lower and upper social classes. Having an earlier education can address the inequality of socioeconomic statuses. Prior to this trend, there was a huge discrepancy between the lower and higher income families. The parents in the lower income families evidently had less time or were less competent tending to their childÃ¢â¬â¢s basic cognitive skills, especially if they had to work or had only received a limited amount of schooling. As academic opportunities became more accessible toShow MoreRelatedGood Communication Skills are Essential for Early Childhood Education1306 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageselement of early childhood education. Communication consists of two main styles: Verbal and non-verbal. These styles of communication form the foundation of effective teaching and learning within the early childhood forum. A good early childhood educator will enhance learning and development with an extensive knowledge o f both the verbal and non-verbal elements of communication. 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This will create substantial benefitsRead MoreChild Development Reflection Paper1332 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCourse Reflection In this course, I have learned theories of child development, principles of growth and development, prenatal development, infancy, toddlerhood, three-four-and five years old, six-seven-and eight years old, middle childhood, adolescence: thirteen to nineteen years old, and where and when to seek help. I really enjoyed the adolescence: thirteen to nineteen years old chapter the most because, people tend to forget that even though they in high school their brains are still growing
Tuesday, December 31, 2019
University Of South Florida A Literary Analysis of Ã¢â¬Å"Black Like MeÃ¢â¬ Raed Margushi Academic Preparation Lisana Mohamed 4th of December, 2015 A Literary Analysis of Ã¢â¬Å"Black Like MeÃ¢â¬ John Howard Griffin was a writer who wanted to write about the truth. In dealing with the racial discrimination problems in the United States, Griffin wanted to write about the realities of the situation. However, he was a white man. He empathized with the black people and wanted equality for them as well however he lacked the experience and exposure to the truth. He decided that the best way to write about this was to be a part of the black community. He consulted with a doctor about making his skin darker so that he can be physically identified as a black man. His doctor was successful in providing him medicine that would make him dark-skinned. After making the transformation, Griffin went on to immerse his self in the black community. He chose to go to Louisiana, Mississippi, Georgia and Alabama. These were the known states back then that was deep in racial discrimination. The setting of the book included these places. These are the places where the events in the book happened. These places were carefully chosen in order to achieve the goal of the book. It was really important for the writer to go to these places because this is where the racial discrimination in the country was really heavy and he wanted to experience that for the things he wanted to write about. Ã¢â¬Å"BlackShow MoreRelatedReoccurring Themes in the Work of Langston Hughes Essay1649 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLangston Hughes is an extremely successful and well known black writer who emerged from the Harlem Renaissance (Ã¢â¬Å"Langston HughesÃ¢â¬ 792). He is recognized for his poetry and like many other writers from the Harlem Renaissance, lived most of his life outside of Harlem (Ã¢â¬Å"Langston HughesÃ¢â¬ 792). His personal experiences and opinions inspire his writing intricately. Unlike other writers of his time, Hughes expresses his discontent with black oppression and focuses on the hardships of his people. HughesÃ¢â¬â¢Read MoreReader-Response Criticism: Langston HughesÃ¢â¬â¢ Dream Boogie1222 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThis poem stood out to me the most because I believe Langston Hughes to have been one of the greatest poets of his timeÃ¢â¬ ¦of all time. I believe that Hughes made his readers think. If you wanted to come to a conclusion of his work you had to work, yours elf, to get to it. The ambiguity of his poems and stories left a lot for the reader to imagine and fill in. Chapter 16 of Ã¢â¬Å"Journey into LiteratureÃ¢â¬ by R. Wayne Clugton gives us a brief overview on Literary Criticism. Literary Criticism is defined asRead MoreLiterary Analysis Of Two Texts Essay1534 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Literary Analysis of Two Texts Renita Redding Instructor: Irene Robles-Huerta ENG 125 March 21, 2015 The short story, Ã¢â¬Å"Where Are You Going, Where Have You BeenÃ¢â¬ , by Joyce Oates, (1966), and the poem, Ã¢â¬Å"What itÃ¢â¬â¢s Like to Be a Black GirlÃ¢â¬ , by Patricia Smith, (1991), are both about the coming of age of young girls and the conflicts that they encounter. The two pieces explore issues that most young girls have with their bodies and others during their puberty years. The literary elements thatRead MoreThe Effects Of Hunger In Black Boy By Richard Wright1717 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Hunger is a unique feeling because its meaning is limitless. Although the term Ã¢â¬Å"hungerÃ¢â¬ is typically associated with a lack of food, it can be simply defined as having Ã¢â¬Å"a strong desire or cravingÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"hungerÃ¢â¬ ). In the novel, Black Boy, Richard Wright recalls the constant hunger pains due to living in poverty. However, Richard experienced alternative forms of hunger that pushed him to overcome adversity. Richard WrightÃ¢â¬â¢s success as a writer, even changed the way people looked at African AmericansRead MoreEssay on Finding Meaning in For Color Girls1232 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescritical attitudes like the intrinsic and feminist literary theory analysis, the text has a broader meaning. For colored girls does not mean for black women only, it means for all women with beauty and different shades as they rise and take power. I am going to analyze this text using the intrinsic and feminist literary theory analysis. With the intrinsic analysis, I will brood mostly on the style and characterization of the text. According to Eaglestone, 2009, intrinsic analysis is a look into theRead MoreWhen Art Imitates Art757 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesrestrictive nature of this approach leaves us with an elitist viewpoint and a sense of supremacy. And when talking about supremacy, whether it is white, black or even cultural, it is in no way something positive. Albeit, it is difficult to control the feeling of superiority when talking to someone who genuinely loves and admires singers with lyrics like: Ã¢â¬Å"Been around the world, dont speak the language. But your booty dont need explaining.Ã¢â¬ Still, it is important to keep in mind that even Jason DeruloRead MoreEssay on Country Lovers1003 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLoverÃ¢â¬â¢s: A Forbidden Lover Story I chose to discuss the short story by Nadie Gordimer, Country Lovers, I will identify the theme and the literary elements that helped me with my analysis. I would consider the story Country Lovers to be the story of racial barriers that created a forbidden love story. There are many literary elements that aid my analysis, and support my interpretation of the stories theme. I will discuss how symbolism, characters, and settings supported the forbidden love storyRead MorePortrayals Of Women During 1800s And 50s Literature1107 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages we can infer that the horrors that inebriated men would inflict on women were widely known, if little discussed, and that while first hand accounts are highly limited, literary works can give us a look at what these intimate interactions and relationships were like during the 1840s and 1850s. My research will focus on literary portrayals of how intoxicated men treated women in the 1840s and 1850s, as few first hand accounts from either men or women seem to be available. Walt Whitman early in hisRead MoreBlack Like Me: a Cultural Book Report910 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessaid. Because of this he felt that they had encouraged him to cross the color line and write Black Like Me. Plot: Black Like Me is the story of a man named John Howard Griffin, who underwent a series of medical treatments to change his skin color temporarily to black; a transformation that was complete when John Howard Griffin shaved off his hair, and looking in the mirror, saw a bald, middle-aged black man. The reason he does this is for an experiment to see how racism was in the Deep South fromRead MoreAn Unknown Girl Analysis1379 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â A Passage To Africa. (Narrative Article, LiteraryÃ Analysis.) Poetry Analysis: An Unknown Girl- MonizaÃ Alvi. 28May In the evening bazaar Studded with neon An unknown girl Is hennaing my hand She squeezes a wet brown line Form a nozzle She is icing my hand, Which she steadies with her On her satin peach knee. In the evening bazaar For a few rupees An unknown girl is hennaing my hand As a little air catches My shadow stitched kameez A peacock spreads its lines Across my palm.
Monday, December 23, 2019
In writing itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to have an understanding of what youÃ¢â¬â¢re trying to convey for your audience in addition to how you you will present your ideas. Effective communication extends beyond having well organized writing expressed in complete and coherent sentences. The style, tone and clarity of writing must also be considered, as they are constantly changing relative to the audience. Again, analyzing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s audience and purpose is essential to successful writing. Appropriately, when choosing the most effective language, it is important to consider the document objective as well as the reader. In essence, this idea of effective use of language has been the overarching theme of this online English course. Each writing assignmentÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Thus, the style of language used within the text was often industry specific and possessed a more academic feeling. For example, in the text I often used abbreviations and slang acceptable within the discou rse such as, SCM Supply chain management, KPI Key performance indicator, and RDT Resource dependence. The word choice in this assignment is indicative of that fact that language is chosen in a manner that is appropriate for both the audience and the purpose of the writing. Furthermore, perhaps the greatest contrast and the most evident of how language works differently in various types of writing is the discussion blog post. The blog post allowed the class to engage in different types of formality of language. The formality of the language one uses should match the formality of the situation and the relationship between the writer and reader. Therefore, as the public audience was a class of online students taking a required writing course in the summer, the formality of my writing has often been very informal. For example, in my blog post addressing my concern over the unworthy power of BeyoncÃ © I wrote, Ã¢â¬Å"It was the year 2008 when the world was blessed with the images of BeyoncÃ © (unapologetically) dancing around in a leotard. Not only is BeyoncÃ ©Ã¢â¬â¢s single lady video one of her most notable hits it begins her what is now a decade long relationship ending spreeÃ¢â¬ (Marquis, 2016 ). The formalityShow MoreRelatedPersuasive Speech : Effective Communication And Me1262 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Effective Communication and MeÃ¢â¬ Hello B.K, How are you? I havenÃ¢â¬â¢t spoken to you in a while. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s me Fayvra, you know the girl that emailed you on Tuesday May 5, 2015 wondering if it was okay for me to miss a whole week of class. Yes a whole week with the exception of a funeral, Well I am so glad your answer was NO. This class has changed my life and leaves a memorable mark that I will never forget. I have truly grown as a student and a person. Ã¢â¬Å"I get it.Ã¢â¬ , my communication fallacy is not to beRead MoreSpeech Analysis : Speech From Public Speaking Course Essay1343 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFinal Speech: Speech Analysis Throughout the public speaking course, I ve learned a variety of methods and strategies that have strengthened the effectiveness of my last speech or any speech, that may occur in the near distant future. It was important to understand the elements that were effective and ineffective to avoid making the same mistakes and to have a clear understanding where I may have fallen short in the past and could improve in the future of public speaking. When constructing theRead MoreUse Of Persuasive Speech On The Public Speaking Course Essay1290 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageseffectiveness for my last speech or any speech, that my occur in the near distant future. It was important to understand elements that were effective and ineffective to avoid making the same mistakes and to have a clear understanding Where I may have fell short in the past and could improve in the future of public speaking. When constructing the persuasive speech it was important to use the rhetoricl methods such as the a few of t he 5 canons of Rhetoric as well as a few communication strategies, these tipsRead MoreThe A Deep Bruise, A Black Eye, And A Bloody Nose1509 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthis essay, I will discuss the primary message within the announcement. I will then identify the purpose of the video and to whom this PSA is directed. I will analyze the communicational techniques, as well as the type of speech within the video. Prove how the video is effective and decide its ethicality. Finally, I will conclude with a personal reflection of lessons I have learned. After searching for a Public Service Announcement online, one of the video images caught my attention: a woman withRead MoreThe Psychology Of Language : Why Are Some Words More Persuasive Than Others?920 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the article, The Psychology of Language: Why Are Some Words More Persuasive Than Others? Leo Widrich discusses the basic concepts of how the brain processes language, and its relation to an effective persuasive communication. Furthermore, the author attempts to convey his audience into the belief that non-verbal expressions, brevity, and adjective avoidance are key elements to a successful communication. Simultaneously, the author suggests three ideas to keep in mind when using language. InRead MoreReflection On My Persuasive Speech Essay1595 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesReflection on my Persuasive Speech All communication is an attempt to influence, highlights Back (1951) and, by extension, hinders the audience s preconceptions on a topic. Thinking about communication and particular verbal strategies and theory both brought forth excellent criticisms and compliments ofor my persuasive speech. It s purpose being to persuade the audience in favour of Britian s exit from the European Union. My persausive speech aimed to educate the audience further on a topic andRead MoreAnalysis Of Elie Wiesels Speech1199 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespresented a speech as part of the Millennium Lecture Series at the White House on April 12, 1999 2.(Wiesel 221). President Bill Clinton and his wife Hillary Clinton hosted the formal event. Numerous government officials from a wide order of public, private and foreign office attended the event 2.(Wiesel 221). Although Elie Wiesel designed his speech to persuade, it actually felt somewhat outside from its original intended purpose, as being more different. WieselÃ¢â¬â¢s speech, persuasive in nature, wasRead MoreKevin Rudd1193 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIndigenous community. The 26th Australian Prime Minister, Kevin Michael Rudd who is an English - Irish man, astonishing and surprising the whole of Australian citizens by delivering a speech entitled Ã¢â¬ËSorryÃ¢â¬â¢. He received a standing ovation as he entered the hall before he delivered his remarkable speech. His speech is an official apology on behalf of the Australian government to the Aboriginals, but in particular it is directed to the stolen generation. Between the year of 1910 and 1970Read MoreThe Role Of Persuasive Communications And Eliciting Communication At Nursing Practice Through The Videos We Have Practiced And Recorded1678 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesReflective Assignment Qing Wan Communication can be defined as the exchange of information, thoughts and feelings among people using speech or other means (Kourkouta and Papathanasiou, 2014). It is divided into verbal (speech) and non-verbal communication. Speech is not always the most important means of communication Ã¢â¬Å"Equally important are the messages conveyed through non-verbal means, such as facial expression (including eye contact), body posture, body position, movement and gesturesÃ¢â¬ (LavenderRead MoreAnalysis Of The Wild, Rocky 4, Pursuit Of The, And A Beautiful Mind863 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesboldness it projected to the audience. The speech is approximately six minutes and was published on July 2, 2013. It provides the audience with a background on how they should make their dreams real. Although obstacles will develop when we are trying to fulfill dreamsÃ¢â¬âthe purpose is to separate from negativity and dream big. Even though the fear of failure overtakes our mind, we cannot allow the f ear to deter us from living out our dream. Finally, the speech uses clips from movies titled, Into The